Thought Leadership | Mortgage | How To & Education
If you've ever dreamed of living rent-free (or close to it) while building wealth through real estate, House Hacking is right for you.
Think house hacking is only for those fortunate enough to have a massive house or turn-key finished detached garage? Think again.
House hacking fits almost all homes, owners, and living situations.
So, let's dive in and look at what house hacking is, everything you need to know about it, and how to get started.
Key Considerations for House Hacking
Tips for Successful House Hacking
What is House Hacking?
House hacking is a real estate investment strategy in which an individual purchases a property, resides in a portion of it, and rents out the remaining space to tenants.
The rental income generated from tenants is then used to offset the owner's housing expenses, such as mortgage payments, property taxes, and insurance premiums.
The great thing about House Hacking is that it comes in different flavors - there's no one-size-fits-all way to house hack.
For instance, you could rent out a spare bedroom in your single-family home, or you could go big and buy a multi-family property (think duplex, triplex, or fourplex) and live in one unit while renting out the others.
Or, if you want to separate your living space from your rented space, you could convert your garage or basement into an accessory dwelling unit (ADU) and rent that out instead.
At the end of the day, the goal of house hacking is to offset your housing costs with rental income.
In some cases, you might even eliminate your housing costs altogether. Imagine living for free while your tenants pay off your mortgage - that's a major win-win!
The Benefits of House Hacking
So, why is house hacking so popular with homeowners and investors alike? Let's break down the perks:
- Slash Your Housing Costs: According to the U.S. Census Bureau (as of 2021), the median monthly housing cost for homeowners with a mortgage was $1,595. But with house hacking, you can use rental income to cover all or part of your mortgage, property taxes, and insurance.
- Build Equity: While your tenants help pay your mortgage, you're building equity in your property. And as property values increase, so does your net worth.
- Gain Landlord Experience: House hacking is like training wheels for future real estate investments. You'll learn the ropes of being a landlord, from screening tenants to handling repairs, all while living just a hop, skip, and a jump away from your rental.
- Tax Benefits: Uncle Sam loves house hackers! Well, sort of. As a landlord, you may be eligible for tax deductions on rental expenses, depreciation, etc. Be sure to chat with a tax professional to navigate your situation correctly.
- Flexibility and Freedom: House hacking gives you options. Want to save for a dream vacation? Check. Pay off student loans? Check. Start a business? Check. With reduced housing costs, you can pursue your financial goals with gusto.
How House Hacking Works
House hacking is all about using your real estate savvy to live (almost) rent-free and build wealth along the way. So, how does it work?
Let's take a look...
Different Types of House Hacking
When it comes to house hacking there's several different options. Whether you're a social butterfly, a real estate mogul in the making, or a DIY enthusiast, there's a house hacking strategy that's right for you. Let's explore the options:
Renting Out a Room in Your Home
Have a spare bedroom just begging to be put to good use? Why not rent it out and make some extra cash? This strategy is perfect for homeowners with extra space who are okay sharing common areas with a roommate.
And get this—according to a 2020 study by Harvard University, 20.5% of U.S. renters lived with roommates. So, there's a huge market for this type of house hack. Plus, you might make a new friend in the process!
Owning a Multi-Family Property
Ready to take your house hacking game to the next level? Consider buying a multi-family property like a duplex, triplex, or fourplex.
You can live in one unit and rent out the others, making you the king or queen of your own mini real estate empire. And here's a fun fact: The National Multi-family Housing Council reported that, as of 2021, there were over 21 million apartment units in the U.S. - that's a lot of potential house hacking opportunities!
Renting Out an Accessory Dwelling Unit (ADU)
Are you feeling creative and looking for a little more privacy? How about transforming your garage, basement, or backyard cottage into a cozy ADU and renting it out?
You'll have your own space, and your tenants will have theirs—it's a win-win! And the potential is enormous: A 2021 study by Freddie Mac found that ADUs could add up to 1.4 million units to the U.S. housing supply.
The House Hacking Process
You've chosen your house hacking adventure; now it's time to make it happen. But where do you start?
Fear not —we've got you covered with everything you should consider.
Finding the Right Property
Location, location, location! Finding the right property is all about doing your homework. Research neighborhoods, check out local rental rates, and crunch the numbers to ensure your house hack will be a cash-flowing machine.
Keep an eye out for up-and-coming areas with strong rental demand, and be bold and think outside the box. Remember, the right property is the foundation of a successful house hack.
Financing Your House Hack
Once you've found the perfect property, it's time to secure financing. Whether you're a first-time homebuyer or a seasoned investor, there are plenty of financing options to choose from.
Traditional mortgages, FHA loans, and even house hacking-specific loan programs are all on the table.
Additionally, there's a bonus: Owner-occupants (that's you!) often qualify for lower interest rates and better loan terms. So, shop around, compare lenders, and find the financing that fits your budget like a glove.
Managing Tenants and Rental Income
Congratulations, you're officially a landlord! But with great power comes great responsibility, and managing tenants and rental income is a big part of the house hacking gig.
From screening tenants (background checks are your friend) to setting rental rates (competitive pricing for the win), you'll want to dot your i's and cross your t's. And remember to handle repairs, collect rent, and keep the peace between tenants.
It might sound like a lot, but with a little organization and a dash of people skills, you'll develop the necessary landlord skills to manage your own rential unit.
Key Considerations for House Hacking
Before diving headfirst into your first house hack, there are a few key considerations to remember. After all, with great house hacking power comes great responsibility.
So, let's take a moment to talk about the most important details, from legal and zoning considerations to tax implications and weighing the pros and cons. Knowledge is power, and we want you to be fully equipped for your house hacking journey!
Legal and Zoning Considerations
House hacking may sound pretty straight forward, but there are some legal and zoning hoops to consider beforehand.
First, you'll want to check local zoning regulations to ensure your house hacking plans are compliant and realistic. For example, is that basement ADU you're planning actually allowed in your neighborhood?
And what about occupancy limits for renting out rooms in your home? Don't worry, a little research goes a long way!
Next up, brush up on landlord-tenant laws in your area. From security deposits to eviction procedures, knowing your rights and responsibilities as a landlord is essential.
And while you're at it, ensure your lease agreements are airtight and comply with local regulations. Trust us, crossing your legal t's and dotting your zoning i's will save you a ton of headaches down the road.
Tax Implications of House Hacking
Let's talk taxes! Uncle Sam is keenly interested in your house hacking endeavors, so you'll want to ensure you understand the tax implications.
On the bright side, as a landlord, you may be eligible for tax deductions on rental expenses like repairs, maintenance, and even depreciation.
You'll also need to report rental income on your tax return, and things can get tricky when dividing expenses between personal and rental use.
For example, how much of your mortgage interest can you deduct for the rental portion of your property? And what about property taxes?
The bottom line? Chatting with a tax professional to navigate the tax maze and take advantage of all the deductions you're entitled to is a good idea.
Pros and Cons of House Hacking
House hacking may sound like a dream come true, but it's not all sunshine and rainbows. Like any real estate strategy, it comes with its own set of pros and cons. Let's weigh them, shall we?
- Slash Your Housing Costs: House hacking can help drastically reduce your mortgage payments and generate extra cash in your pocket!
- Build Equity: Your tenants are helping you pay down your mortgage and build equity, which is the ultimate goal of owning property.
- Gain Landlord Experience: House hacking is a great way to dip your toes into real estate investing and learn the ropes of being a landlord.
- Less Privacy: Sharing your living space with tenants means you might have to sacrifice some privacy, so make sure you're willing to adapt to the situation.
- Landlord Responsibilities: Being a landlord comes with its fair share of responsibilities, from handling repairs to dealing with tenant disputes. Are you up for the challenge?
- Market Risks: Real estate markets can fluctuate, and there's always a risk of vacancies or unexpected expenses. Make sure you have a financial cushion to fall back on.
In a nutshell, house hacking can be a fantastic way to achieve financial freedom and build wealth through real estate. But it's important to do your homework, understand the risks, and be prepared for the responsibilities that come with being a landlord.
Tips for Successful House Hacking
If you're ready to master house hacking, we're here to help. House hacking blends strategy with action and offers great rewards. To ensure success, we've prepared a concise, step-by-step guide to house hacking. Let's get started!
Screen Tenants Like a Pro
Step 1: Create a rock-solid rental application. Ask for the essentials: employment info, rental history, references, etc.
A well-designed rental application is the first defense in finding reliable and responsible tenants. When creating your application, be sure to request essential information, including:
- Personal Information: Full name, contact details, and identification (e.g., driver's license number).
- Employment Information: Current employer, job title, length of employment, and monthly income. Requesting proof of income, such as recent pay stubs, can help verify the tenant's ability to pay rent.
- Rental History: Previous rental addresses, tenancy duration, and prior landlords' contact information. This information will help you assess the tenant's rental track record.
- References: Personal and professional references who can vouch for the tenant's character and reliability.
- Additional Information: Number of occupants, pet ownership, and any other relevant details.
Step 2: Run a background and credit check. Trust us; it's worth the investment to know who you're renting to.
Conducting a thorough background and credit check is crucial in the tenant screening process. A background check can reveal the tenant's criminal history, prior evictions, and public records. A credit check, on the other hand, provides insight into the tenant's creditworthiness and financial stability.
- Criminal History: Look for any criminal convictions or legal issues that may raise red flags.
- Eviction Records: Check for any past evictions, which could indicate a history of non-payment or lease violations.
- Credit Score and Report: Evaluate the tenant's credit score and payment history to assess their financial responsibility.
Step 3: Call those references! A quick chat with a previous landlord can give you valuable insights into your potential tenant.
Reaching out to the references provided by the tenant is a smart step to take in the screening process. Specifically, speaking with previous landlords can offer valuable insights into the tenant's behavior and rental history.
- Payment History: Ask if the tenant paid rent on time and if there were any non-payment issues.
- Lease Compliance: Inquire about the tenant's adherence to lease terms, including rules about noise, property maintenance, and pets.
- Communication and Cooperation: Find out how the tenant communicated with the landlord and if they cooperated in resolving any issues.
Step 4: Trust your gut. If something feels off, don't be afraid to keep looking for the perfect tenant.
While objective data from applications, background checks, and references is essential, it's also important to trust your instincts. As a landlord, you may have an intuitive sense about whether a tenant is a good fit for your property.
- Red Flags: Pay attention to any red flags, such as inconsistencies in the application or reluctance to provide references.
- Interactions: Consider your interactions with the tenant during property showings and interviews. Are they respectful and courteous?
- Compatibility: Assess whether the tenant's lifestyle and expectations align with your property and rental terms.
Price it right - set correct rental rates
Step 1: Do your homework. Research local rental rates to get a sense of what similar properties are going for.
- Conduct Market Research: Investigate the rental market in your area to understand the going rates for similar properties. Look at online rental listings, local classifieds, and real estate websites to gather data.
- Analyze Comparable Properties: Focus on properties with similar features, such as the number of bedrooms, bathrooms, square footage, and amenities. This will help you establish a fair and realistic rental rate for your property.
- Consider Location: Location plays a significant role in rental rates. Properties in desirable neighborhoods, close to amenities and transportation, may command higher rents.
Step 2: Consider your expenses. Make sure your rental rate covers your mortgage, property taxes, insurance, and maintenance costs.
- Calculate Fixed Expenses: Determine your fixed monthly expenses, including mortgage payments, property taxes, insurance premiums, and any homeowners' association (HOA) fees.
- Estimate Maintenance Costs: Budget for regular maintenance, repairs, and potential upgrades to keep the property in good condition.
- Factor in Vacancy Allowance: Account for potential vacancy periods when the property may be unoccupied between tenants.
- Ensure Positive Cash Flow: Set a rental rate that covers your expenses and generates positive cash flow, contributing to your overall return on investment.
Step 3: Be competitive. Price your rental just right—not too high, not too low—to attract quality tenants and minimize vacancies.
- Avoid Overpricing: Setting the rent too high may deter potential tenants and result in longer vacancy periods, impacting your cash flow.
- Avoid Underpricing: Setting the rent too low may attract less desirable tenants and reduce your overall return on investment.
- Monitor the Competition: Keep an eye on the rental market and adjust your pricing strategy as needed to remain competitive and attract quality tenants.
Step 4: Stay flexible. Be open to adjusting your rental rate based on market conditions and tenant feedback.
- Assess Market Changes: Rental markets can fluctuate due to economic conditions, housing demand, and seasonal trends. Be prepared to adjust your rental rate in response to market changes.
- Listen to Feedback: If prospective tenants provide feedback on the rental rate during property showings, take it into consideration when setting the final price.
- Consider Incentives: If you're facing challenges in attracting tenants, consider offering incentives, such as a discounted first month's rent or a flexible lease term, to make your property more appealing.
Maintaining a Positive Landlord-Tenant Relationship
Step 1: Set clear expectations. Communication is key! Make sure your lease agreement clearly outlines the terms and conditions, including rent due dates, maintenance responsibilities, and house rules.
- Draft a Comprehensive Lease: Create a lease agreement that clearly outlines the rights and responsibilities of both parties. Include details such as payment terms, security deposit, maintenance obligations, and any specific house rules.
- Review the Lease Together: Sit down with your tenant to review the lease agreement together. This provides an opportunity to clarify any questions and ensure mutual understanding.
- Highlight Key Points: Emphasize important aspects of the lease, such as rent due dates, late fees, and procedures for requesting repairs or reporting issues.
Step 2: Be responsive and approachable. When your tenants reach out with questions or concerns, respond promptly and professionally. A little kindness goes a long way!
- Establish Communication Channels: Provide your tenants with multiple ways to reach you, such as phone, email, or messaging apps. Let them know which method is best for urgent matters.
- Respond in a Timely Manner: Make it a priority to respond to tenant inquiries or concerns as quickly as possible. Prompt responses show that you value and respect your tenants.
- Practice Active Listening: Listen attentively to your tenants' concerns and work collaboratively to find solutions. A respectful and empathetic approach fosters positive relationships.
Step 3: Stay on top of repairs and maintenance. A well-maintained property is a happy property. Address maintenance issues in a timely manner to keep your tenants satisfied and your property in tip-top shape.Step 4: Foster open communication. Encourage your tenants to reach out with any issues or feedback. Regular check-ins help build trust and prevent small issues from becoming big problems.
- Schedule Check-Ins: Arrange periodic check-ins with your tenants to discuss any concerns, feedback, or suggestions they may have.
- Encourage Open Dialogue: Create an environment where tenants feel comfortable sharing their thoughts and experiences. Open communication helps address issues before they escalate.
- Resolve Conflicts Amicably: If conflicts arise, approach them with a solution-oriented mindset. Seek to understand the perspectives of all parties and work collaboratively to find a resolution.
Step 5: Respect privacy. Remember that your tenants have a right to privacy, even if you share the same property. Give proper notice before entering their living space and avoid being intrusive.
- Follow Legal Requirements: Familiarize yourself with local laws regarding tenant privacy and the required notice period for entering the rental unit.
- Communicate Entry Intentions: Notify tenants in advance of your intention to enter the property, specifying the reason and the expected date and time.
- Minimize Disruptions: Be mindful of your tenants' schedules and preferences, and avoid entering the property excessively or at inconvenient times.
Step 6: Show appreciation. A little gratitude goes a long way. Consider small gestures, like a thank-you note or a holiday gift, to show your tenants that you value and appreciate them.
- Express Gratitude: Take the time to express your appreciation to tenants for timely rent payments, good care of the property, and positive communication.
- Offer Small Tokens: Consider offering small tokens of appreciation, such as gift cards, holiday treats, or personalized notes, to show your gratitude.
Conclusion: Is House Hacking Right for You?
As we've explored throughout this discussion, house hacking is a unique and powerful approach to real estate investing that allows homeowners to leverage their property to generate rental income.
By renting out a portion of their property—whether it be a room, a separate unit in a multi-family property, or an accessory dwelling unit (ADU)—house hackers can offset their housing expenses and even live rent-free.
The benefits of house hacking extend beyond financial savings; it also provides an opportunity to build equity in the property, gain valuable experience as a landlord, take advantage of potential tax benefits, and achieve greater financial flexibility.
However, house hacking is not without its challenges. It requires careful consideration of legal and zoning regulations, as well as a commitment to maintaining positive landlord-tenant relationships. Ultimately, the success of house hacking hinges on careful planning, due diligence, and effective execution of best practices.
Next Steps for Aspiring House Hackers
If you're inspired to pursue house hacking and eager to embark on this exciting journey, there are several important next steps to consider. First, invest time in research and education to build a strong foundation of knowledge about house hacking strategies, local real estate markets, and landlord-tenant laws.
Being well-informed will empower you to make sound decisions and navigate the house hacking process with confidence. Next, take the time to assess your own financial goals, available resources, and risk tolerance. Determine how house hacking aligns with your broader investment strategy and financial objectives.
Once you have a clear vision, focus on finding the right property—one that offers house hacking potential and aligns with your goals. Consider factors such as location, rental demand, and potential cash flow.
Securing financing is another critical step, so explore your options and seek favorable loan terms.
Finally, as you transition into the role of a house hacker and landlord, prioritize clear communication, timely maintenance, thorough tenant screening, and relationship-building.
These best practices will contribute to a positive experience for both you and your tenants and set the stage for long-term success in your house hacking endeavors.